Markku Lehtonen

Visiting Researcher
Research Areas

About

Markku Lehtonen is a Visiting Researcher at the School of Public Policy and Global Affairs (SPPGA) at UBC from February to July 2022 and a researcher at the Pompeu Fabra University in Barcelona and at the Barcelona Autonomous University (UAB). At SPPGA, he is collaborating primarily with Professors Allison Macfarlane and M.V. Ramana on research concerning nuclear-sector promises (especially Small Modular Reactors) and the socio-technical aspects of nuclear waste management. Markku is also Associate Researcher at the Groupe de Sociologie Pragmatique et Réflexive (GSPR), Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) in Paris, and at the Science Policy Research Unit (SPRU) of the University of Sussex, UK. He also has the title of Docent at the Department of Social Sciences and Philosophy, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.

Markku is an interdisciplinary social scientist, with over 30 years of international experience in research and policy relating to sustainable development, as well as energy and environmental policy. In his research, he applies a range of methods and approaches including comparative case studies, expert and stakeholder interviews, frame analysis, socio-informatics, and document analysis. Markku has conducted interview fieldwork in the native language of the interviewees in France, Brazil, Finland, Portugal, Sweden, and the UK. His recent and on-going research focuses on the roles of trust, mistrust, and distrust, as well as techno-scientific promises and epistemic communities in the governance of megaprojects in the nuclear energy sector. Markku holds a PhD in ecological economics from the C3ED, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, France (2005) and an MSc in Environmental Protection from the University of Helsinki, Finland (1994).


Teaching


Research

Markku is Principal Investigator of a three-year (2022-2024) project PROMISESThe making of sustainability transitions with (false?) expectations: Critical analysis of historical and current promises of nuclear technology, funded by the Finnish Kone Foundation. In 2019-2021, he worked as an EU Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual Fellow at the Pompeu Fabra University in Barcelona, leading his individual project TENUMECAThe technopolitics of nuclear megaproject pathologies, economic controversies and varieties of socioeconomic appraisal. The project included interviews and participant observation during a 4.5-month secondment at the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), Paris, in summer 2019. In 2016-2019, Markku worked as the Scientific executive and responsible for the France Country Report within the large EU FP7-funded project HoNEStHistory of Nuclear Energy and Society, which included experts from 23 research institutions from Europe and the US. Markku is co-editor of a recently published volume based on the findings of the HoNESt project: Kaijser, A., Lehtonen, M., Meyer, J.-H. & Rubio Varas, M. (eds.). 2021. Engaging the Atom: The History of Nuclear Energy and Society in Europe from the 1950s to the Present. West Virginia University Press.

Other Research Grants and Projects

2021-25: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, EU Horizon project, ECF4CLIM – A European competence framework for a low carbon economy and sustainability through education, PI: Yolanda Lechón, CIEMAT, Spain.

2018: Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Waste Management (KYT), Governing Safety in Finnish and Swedish Nuclear Waste Regimes (SAFER), with Tampere University. Acquiring Social License for Disposal: trust and acceptance (SOLID), with Tampere University.

2015-18: ESSEC Business School, Centre CONNECT, Participation et confiance : cas de participation locale en Finlande, Suède et Royaume-Uni (with L. de Carlo, ESSEC)

2014-16: GSPR Co-I, CNRS, Economics and scenarios in the relaunch of nuclear energy in Europe: comparison between the trajectories of the EPR reactor in Finland, France and the UK – MESRENE (PIs: Francis Chateauraynaud & Jean-Charles Hourcade)

2013-14: SPRU PI, CNRS, Socio-political consequences of the Fukushima accident in Europe -– RESPAFE 1 & 2 (PI: Guillaume Courty, Lille 2)

2012-14: Ifris PI, Andra (Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs), Analysis of methodologies for socio-economic evaluation of the French radioactive waste disposal project (supervised by Pierre-Benoît Joly, Ifris)

2011–14: SPRU Co-I, EU FP7, APRAISE – Assessment of Policy Interrelationships and Impacts on Sustainability in Europe (lead: Joanneum Research, Austria; SPRU PI: Steve Sorrell)

2010–12: SPRU PI, EDF France The rise and fall of the fast breeder reactor technology in France and the UK: expertise, risk and hype-disappointment cycles?

2009-10: PI, Paris city fellowship, Nuclear renaissance: participatory and deliberative governance of nuclear energy in Finland, France and the UK

2008–11: SPRU PI, EU FP7, POINT – Policy Influence of Indicators (PI: Pia Frederiksen, DMU, Copenhagen)


Publications

Peer reviewed journal articles and conference papers               

Lehtonen, M. 2022 (forthcoming). The discursive construction of the economic sustainability of nuclear energy megaprojects: The role of the state in British, French, and Finnish debates on state support. Journal of Mega Infrastructure and Sustainable Development.

Lehtonen, M., Prades, A., Espluga, J. & Konrad, W. 2021. The emergence of mistrustful civic vigilance in Finnish, French, German and Spanish nuclear policies: ideological trust and (de)politicization. Journal of Risk Research. https://doi.org/10.1080/13669877.2021.1957986

Lehtonen, M., Kojo, M., Kari, M. Jartti, T. & Litmanen, T. 2021. Trust, mistrust and distrust as blind spots of Social Licence to Operate: Illustration via three forerunner countries in nuclear waste management. Journal of Risk Research. https://doi.org/10.1080/13669877.2021.1957987

Lehtonen, M. 2021. NEA framing nuclear megaproject ‘pathologies’: vices of the modern Western society? Nuclear Technology 207 (9): 1329-1350. https://doi.org/10.1080/00295450.2021.1885952

Lehtonen, M., Kojo, M., Kari, M., Litmanen, T. 2021. Healthy mistrust or complacent confidence? Civic vigilance in the reporting by leading newspapers on nuclear waste disposal in Finland and France. Risk, Hazards,  & Crisis in Public Policy 12(2): 130-157.

Kari, M., Kojo, M. & Lehtonen, M. 2021. Role of the host communities in final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland and Sweden. Progress in Nuclear Energy 133 (March).

Lehtonen, M. 2020. Harder governance built on soft foundations: experience from OECD peer reviews. Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 22(6): 814-829 (Special Issue “Harder Soft-Governance” in European Climate and Energy Policy: Following a New Trend?)

Lehtonen, M., Kojo, M., Jartti, T., Litmanen, T. & Kari, M. 2020. The roles of the state and social licence to operate? Lessons from nuclear waste management in Finland, France, and Sweden. Energy Research and Social Science. Vol. 61 (March).

Kojo, M., Kari, M., Litmanen, T., Vilhunen, T. & Lehtonen, M. 2020. The critical Swedes and the consensual Finns: Leading newspapers as watchdogs or lapdogs of nuclear waste repository licensing? Energy Research and Social Science. Vol. 61 (March).

Lehtonen, M. 2020. History, Trust and Mistrust: Lessons from Radioactive Waste Disposal Megaprojects. In: Ronggui, D. (ed.), Trust in Major and Mega Projects. 7th IPMA Research Conference, Zagreb, Croatia, Sept 4-7, 2019. International Project Management Association – IPMA. Pp. 291-307.

Lehtonen, M. 2019.The multiple faces of trust in statistics and indicators: A case for healthy mistrust and distrust. Statistical Journal of the IAOS 35(4): 539–548. DOI 10.3233/SJI-190579

Lehtonen, M. & de Carlo, L. 2019. Community energy and the virtues of mistrust and distrust: Lessons from Brighton and Hove energy cooperatives. Ecological Economics, Vol. 164 (October).

Lehtonen, M. & de Carlo, L. 2019. Diffuse institutional trust and specific institutional mistrust in Nordic participatory planning: Experience from contested urban projects. Planning Theory and Practice 20(2): 203-220.

Lehtonen, M. 2019. Ecological economics and megaproject appraisal: lessons from megaproject scholarship and topics for a research programme. Ecological Economics 159(May): 148-156.

Lehtonen, M., Sébastien, L. & Bauler, T. 2016. The multiple roles of sustainability indicators in informational governance: between intended use and unanticipated influence. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability. 18: 1–9.

Lehtonen, M. 2014. Evaluating megaprojects: from the “iron triangle” to network mapping. Evaluation 20(3): 278-295.

Lehtonen, M. 2014. Evaluation of “The Social” in Megaprojects: Tensions, Dichotomies, and Ambiguities. International Journal of Architecture, Engineering and Construction 3(2): 98-109.

Lehtonen, M. 2014. Acceptance of Brazilian ethanol fuel and the role of expertise. Biofuels 5(3): 261-274.

Sébastien, L., Lehtonen, M. & Bauler, T. 2014. Can indicators fill the gap between science and policy? An exploration of the (non) use and (non) influence of indicators in EU and UK policymaking. Nature & Culture 9(3): 316-343.

Macnaghten, P., Owen, R., Stilgoe, J., Wynne, B., Azevedo, A., de Campos, A., Chilvers, J., Dagnino, R., di Giulio, G., Frow, E., Garvey, B., Groves, C., Hartley, S., Knobel, M., Kobayashi, E., Lehtonen, M., Lezaun, J., Mello, L., Monteiro, M., Pamplona da Costa, J., Rigolin, C., Rondani, B., Staykova, M., Taddei, R. Till, C., Tyfield, D., Wilford, S. & Velho, L. 2014. Responsible innovation across borders: tensions, paradoxes and possibilities. Journal of Responsible Innovation 1(2): 191-199.

Lehtonen, M. 2013. The non-use and influence of UK Energy Sector Indicators. Ecological Indicators 35(December): 24-34.

Gasparatos, A., Lehtonen, M. & Strömberg, P. 2013. Do we need a unified appraisal framework to synthesize biofuel impacts? Biomass and Bioenergy 50(1): 75–80.

Sorrell, S., Lehtonen, M., Stapleton, L., Pujol, J. & Champion, T. 2012. Decoupling of road freight energy use from economic growth in the United Kingdom. Energy Policy 41(February): 84–97.

Teräväinen, T., Lehtonen, M. & Martiskainen, M. 2011. Climate change, energy security and risk – Debating new nuclear build in Finland, France and the UK. Energy Policy 39(6): 3434–3442.

Lehtonen, M. 2011. Social sustainability of the Brazilian bioethanol: power relations in a centre-periphery perspective. Biomass and Bioenergy 35(6): 2425-2434.

Lehtonen, M. 2010. Deliberative decision-making on radioactive waste management in Finland, France and the UK: Influence of mixed forms of deliberation in the macro discursive context. Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences 7(3): 175-196.

Lehtonen, M. 2010. Opening up or Closing Down Radioactive Waste Management Policy? Debates on Reversibility and Retrievability in Finland, France, and the United Kingdom. Risk, Hazards, & Crisis in Public Policy 1(4): 139-179.

Lehtonen, M. 2009. OECD organisational discourse, peer reviews and sustainable development: an ecological-institutionalist perspective. Ecological Economics 69(2): 389-397.

Sorrell, S., Lehtonen, M., Stapleton, L., Pujol, J. & Champion, T. 2009. Decomposing road freight energy use in the United Kingdom. Energy Policy 37(8): 3115–3129.

Lehtonen, M. & Nye, S. 2009. History of electricity network control and distributed generation in the UK and western Denmark. Energy Policy 37(6): 2338-2345.

Lehtonen, M. 2008. Mainstreaming Sustainable Development in the OECD through Indicators and Peer Reviews. Sustainable Development 16(3): 241-250.

Berninger, K., Tapio, P., Lehtonen, M. & Willamo, R. 2008/2009. Une approche centrée sur les problèmes pour les sciences de l’environnement. Environments 36(2): 1-18.

Lehtonen, M. 2007. Environmental Policy Integration through the OECD Peer Reviews: Integrating Economy to the Environment or the Environment to the Economy? Environmental Politics 16(1): 15-35.

Lehtonen, M. 2006. Deliberative Democracy, Participation, and OECD Peer Reviews of Environmental Policies. American Journal of Evaluation 27(2): 185-200.

Lehtonen, M. 2005. OECD Environmental Performance Review Programme: Accountability (f)or Learning? Evaluation 11(2): 169-188.

Lehtonen, M. 2004. The environmental-social interface of sustainable development: capabilities, social capital, institutions. Ecological Economics 49(2): 199-214.

Edited books

Kaijser, A., Lehtonen, M., Meyer, J.-H. & Rubio Varas, M. (eds.). 2021. Engaging the Atom: The History of Nuclear Energy and Society in Europe from the 1950s to the Present. West Virginia University Press.

Lehtonen, M., Joly, P.-B. & Aparicio, L. (eds.). 2017. Socioeconomic evaluation of megaprojects: Dealing with uncertainties. Routledge. (Including introductory & concluding chapters by the editors).

De Perthuis, C., Didier, M., Lehtonen, M. & Duchassaing, S. 2002. Le développement durable : signification et enjeux. Sustainable development: Meaning and Challenges. Groupe Caisse des Dépôts & Le Cercle ces économistes. Paris.

Edited special issues

Sébastien, L., Lehtonen, M. & Bauler, T. (eds.). Démocratiser la mesure: les indicateurs participatifs. Participations 2017/2 (No. 18). Including: Sébastien, Lehtonen, Bauler, Introduction. Les indicateurs participatifs tiennent-ils leurs promesses ? pp. 9-38.

Trust, mistrust, distrust and trust-building in the nuclear sector: historical and comparative experience from Europe. Journal of Risk Research (2022). Co-edited with Ana Prades, Josep Espluga, and Stathis Arapostathis.

Nuclear Megaproject Promises, Uncertainties, and Sustainable Development. Journal of Mega Infrastructure & Sustainable Development (April 2022)

Selected book chapters

Lehtonen, M. (forthcoming, 2022). Indicators and Measures as Policy Tools. In: Howlett, M. (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Policy Tools. Chapter 17.

Lehtonen, M. (forthcoming, 2022). The governance ecosystem of radioactive waste management in France: governing of and with mistrust. In: Arentsen, M., Snijders, D. & van Est, R. (eds.), The Future of Radioactive Waste – Governance Lessons from Europe.

Kaijser, A., Lehtonen, M., Meyer, J.-H. & Rubio Varas, M. 2021. Nuclear Energy and Society in Post-war Europe: An Introduction. In: Kaijser et al., Engaging the Atom: The History of Nuclear Energy and Society in Europe from the 1950s to the Present. West Virginia University Press.

Josephson, P. & Lehtonen, M. 2021. International Organizations and the Atom: How Comecon, Euratom, and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Developed Societal Engagement. In: Kaijser et al., Engaging the Atom. Chapter 4.

Lehtonen, M., Cotton, M. & Kasperski, T. 2021. Trust and Mistrust in Radioactive Waste Management: Historical Experience from High- and Low-Trust Contexts. In: Kaijser et al., Engaging the Atom. Chapter 6.

Kaijser, A., Lehtonen, M., Meyer, J.-H. & Rubio Varas, M. 2021. Conclusions: Future Challenges for Nuclear Energy and Society in a Historical Perspective. In: Kaijser et al., Engaging the Atom. Chapter 10.

Lehtonen, M. & Kojo, M. 2019. The Role and Functions of Community Benefit Schemes: A Comparison of the Finnish and French Nuclear Waste Disposal Projects. In: Brunnengräber, A. & Di Nucci, M.R. (eds.), Conflicts, Participation and Acceptability in Nuclear Waste Governance: An International Comparison Volume III, Springer VS. Pp. 175-205.

Lehtonen, M. Joly, P.-B. & Aparicio, L. 2017. Introduction. In: Lehtonen, Joly, P.-B. & Aparicio, L. (dir.), Socioeconomic evaluation of megaprojects: Dealing with uncertainties. Abingdon and New York: Routledge. Ch. 1.

Lehtonen, M. Joly, P.-B. & Aparicio, L. 2017. Conclusions. In: Lehtonen et al., op. cit. Ch. 12.

Reverdy, T. & Lehtonen, M. 2017. The Lyon-Turin high-speed railway project and the escalation of commitment. In: Lehtonen, M., Joly, P.-B. & Aparicio, L. (op.cit.), Chapter 4.

Lehtonen, M., Kojo, M. & Litmanen, T. 2017. The Finnish success story in the governance of a megaproject: the (minimal) role of socioeconomic evaluation in the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. In: Lehtonen, M., Joly, P.-B. & Aparicio, L. (op.cit.), pp. 83-110.

Lehtonen, M. 2017. Operationalizing Information: Measures and Indicators in Policy Formulation. In: Howlett, M. & Mukherjee, I. (eds.) Handbook of Policy Formulation. Cheltenham, UK & Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar. Pp. 161-181.

Lehtonen, M. 2016. Conditions pour une évaluation socioéconomique par la cartographie de réseaux dans un contexte de méfiance : le projet de gestion des déchets radioactifs en France. In: Lamari, M. & Jacob, J. (dir.) Praxis de l’évaluation et de la révision des programmes publics: Approches, compétences et défis. Presses de l’Université du Québec. Pp. 261-280.

Lehtonen, M. 2015. Megaproject Underway: Governance of Nuclear Waste Management in France. In: Brunnengräber, A., Di Nucci, M.R., Isidoro Losada, A.M., Mez, L. & Schreurs, M.A. (eds.), Governance of Nuclear Waste Management: An International Comparison. Springer. Pp. 117-138.

Lehtonen, M. 2015. Indicators: tools for informing, monitoring or controlling? In: Jordan, A.J. & Turnpenny, J.R. (eds.) The Tools of Policy Formulation: Actors, Capacities, Venues and Effects. Edward Elgar. Pp. 76–99.

Lehtonen, M. & Martiskainen, M. 2015. Nuclear power after Fukushima: prospects and implications. In: Ekins, P., Bradshaw, M., Watson, J (eds.) Global Energy: Issues, Potentials, and Policy Implications. Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press. Pp. 306-330.

Lehtonen, M. 2012. Power, social sustainability, and certification of ethanol fuel: view from the Northeast of Brazil. In: Gasparatos, A. & Strömberg, P. (eds.), Socioeconomic and Environmental Impacts of Biofuels: Evidence from Developing Nations. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 144-170.

Lehtonen, M. 2012. Indicators as an appraisal technology: Framework for analysing the policy influence of the UK Energy Sector Indicators. In: Raggamby et al. (eds.), “Sustainable development, evaluation and policy making”, Edward Elgar: Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA. Pp. 175-206.

Lehtonen, M. 2009. OECD Peer Reviews and Policy Convergence: Diffusing Policies or Discourses? In: Biermann, F., Schreyögg, A. and Siebenhühner, B. (eds.), International Organizations and Global Environmental Governance. Routledge Pp. 71-90.

Lehtonen, M. & Kern, F. 2009. Deliberative socio-technical transitions. In: Scrase, I. & MacKerron, G. (eds.), Energy for the Future: A New Agenda. New York and London: Palgrave Macmillan.


Markku Lehtonen

Visiting Researcher
Research Areas

About

Markku Lehtonen is a Visiting Researcher at the School of Public Policy and Global Affairs (SPPGA) at UBC from February to July 2022 and a researcher at the Pompeu Fabra University in Barcelona and at the Barcelona Autonomous University (UAB). At SPPGA, he is collaborating primarily with Professors Allison Macfarlane and M.V. Ramana on research concerning nuclear-sector promises (especially Small Modular Reactors) and the socio-technical aspects of nuclear waste management. Markku is also Associate Researcher at the Groupe de Sociologie Pragmatique et Réflexive (GSPR), Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) in Paris, and at the Science Policy Research Unit (SPRU) of the University of Sussex, UK. He also has the title of Docent at the Department of Social Sciences and Philosophy, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.

Markku is an interdisciplinary social scientist, with over 30 years of international experience in research and policy relating to sustainable development, as well as energy and environmental policy. In his research, he applies a range of methods and approaches including comparative case studies, expert and stakeholder interviews, frame analysis, socio-informatics, and document analysis. Markku has conducted interview fieldwork in the native language of the interviewees in France, Brazil, Finland, Portugal, Sweden, and the UK. His recent and on-going research focuses on the roles of trust, mistrust, and distrust, as well as techno-scientific promises and epistemic communities in the governance of megaprojects in the nuclear energy sector. Markku holds a PhD in ecological economics from the C3ED, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, France (2005) and an MSc in Environmental Protection from the University of Helsinki, Finland (1994).


Teaching


Research

Markku is Principal Investigator of a three-year (2022-2024) project PROMISESThe making of sustainability transitions with (false?) expectations: Critical analysis of historical and current promises of nuclear technology, funded by the Finnish Kone Foundation. In 2019-2021, he worked as an EU Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual Fellow at the Pompeu Fabra University in Barcelona, leading his individual project TENUMECAThe technopolitics of nuclear megaproject pathologies, economic controversies and varieties of socioeconomic appraisal. The project included interviews and participant observation during a 4.5-month secondment at the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), Paris, in summer 2019. In 2016-2019, Markku worked as the Scientific executive and responsible for the France Country Report within the large EU FP7-funded project HoNEStHistory of Nuclear Energy and Society, which included experts from 23 research institutions from Europe and the US. Markku is co-editor of a recently published volume based on the findings of the HoNESt project: Kaijser, A., Lehtonen, M., Meyer, J.-H. & Rubio Varas, M. (eds.). 2021. Engaging the Atom: The History of Nuclear Energy and Society in Europe from the 1950s to the Present. West Virginia University Press.

Other Research Grants and Projects

2021-25: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, EU Horizon project, ECF4CLIM – A European competence framework for a low carbon economy and sustainability through education, PI: Yolanda Lechón, CIEMAT, Spain.

2018: Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Waste Management (KYT), Governing Safety in Finnish and Swedish Nuclear Waste Regimes (SAFER), with Tampere University. Acquiring Social License for Disposal: trust and acceptance (SOLID), with Tampere University.

2015-18: ESSEC Business School, Centre CONNECT, Participation et confiance : cas de participation locale en Finlande, Suède et Royaume-Uni (with L. de Carlo, ESSEC)

2014-16: GSPR Co-I, CNRS, Economics and scenarios in the relaunch of nuclear energy in Europe: comparison between the trajectories of the EPR reactor in Finland, France and the UK – MESRENE (PIs: Francis Chateauraynaud & Jean-Charles Hourcade)

2013-14: SPRU PI, CNRS, Socio-political consequences of the Fukushima accident in Europe -– RESPAFE 1 & 2 (PI: Guillaume Courty, Lille 2)

2012-14: Ifris PI, Andra (Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs), Analysis of methodologies for socio-economic evaluation of the French radioactive waste disposal project (supervised by Pierre-Benoît Joly, Ifris)

2011–14: SPRU Co-I, EU FP7, APRAISE – Assessment of Policy Interrelationships and Impacts on Sustainability in Europe (lead: Joanneum Research, Austria; SPRU PI: Steve Sorrell)

2010–12: SPRU PI, EDF France The rise and fall of the fast breeder reactor technology in France and the UK: expertise, risk and hype-disappointment cycles?

2009-10: PI, Paris city fellowship, Nuclear renaissance: participatory and deliberative governance of nuclear energy in Finland, France and the UK

2008–11: SPRU PI, EU FP7, POINT – Policy Influence of Indicators (PI: Pia Frederiksen, DMU, Copenhagen)


Publications

Peer reviewed journal articles and conference papers               

Lehtonen, M. 2022 (forthcoming). The discursive construction of the economic sustainability of nuclear energy megaprojects: The role of the state in British, French, and Finnish debates on state support. Journal of Mega Infrastructure and Sustainable Development.

Lehtonen, M., Prades, A., Espluga, J. & Konrad, W. 2021. The emergence of mistrustful civic vigilance in Finnish, French, German and Spanish nuclear policies: ideological trust and (de)politicization. Journal of Risk Research. https://doi.org/10.1080/13669877.2021.1957986

Lehtonen, M., Kojo, M., Kari, M. Jartti, T. & Litmanen, T. 2021. Trust, mistrust and distrust as blind spots of Social Licence to Operate: Illustration via three forerunner countries in nuclear waste management. Journal of Risk Research. https://doi.org/10.1080/13669877.2021.1957987

Lehtonen, M. 2021. NEA framing nuclear megaproject ‘pathologies’: vices of the modern Western society? Nuclear Technology 207 (9): 1329-1350. https://doi.org/10.1080/00295450.2021.1885952

Lehtonen, M., Kojo, M., Kari, M., Litmanen, T. 2021. Healthy mistrust or complacent confidence? Civic vigilance in the reporting by leading newspapers on nuclear waste disposal in Finland and France. Risk, Hazards,  & Crisis in Public Policy 12(2): 130-157.

Kari, M., Kojo, M. & Lehtonen, M. 2021. Role of the host communities in final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland and Sweden. Progress in Nuclear Energy 133 (March).

Lehtonen, M. 2020. Harder governance built on soft foundations: experience from OECD peer reviews. Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 22(6): 814-829 (Special Issue “Harder Soft-Governance” in European Climate and Energy Policy: Following a New Trend?)

Lehtonen, M., Kojo, M., Jartti, T., Litmanen, T. & Kari, M. 2020. The roles of the state and social licence to operate? Lessons from nuclear waste management in Finland, France, and Sweden. Energy Research and Social Science. Vol. 61 (March).

Kojo, M., Kari, M., Litmanen, T., Vilhunen, T. & Lehtonen, M. 2020. The critical Swedes and the consensual Finns: Leading newspapers as watchdogs or lapdogs of nuclear waste repository licensing? Energy Research and Social Science. Vol. 61 (March).

Lehtonen, M. 2020. History, Trust and Mistrust: Lessons from Radioactive Waste Disposal Megaprojects. In: Ronggui, D. (ed.), Trust in Major and Mega Projects. 7th IPMA Research Conference, Zagreb, Croatia, Sept 4-7, 2019. International Project Management Association – IPMA. Pp. 291-307.

Lehtonen, M. 2019.The multiple faces of trust in statistics and indicators: A case for healthy mistrust and distrust. Statistical Journal of the IAOS 35(4): 539–548. DOI 10.3233/SJI-190579

Lehtonen, M. & de Carlo, L. 2019. Community energy and the virtues of mistrust and distrust: Lessons from Brighton and Hove energy cooperatives. Ecological Economics, Vol. 164 (October).

Lehtonen, M. & de Carlo, L. 2019. Diffuse institutional trust and specific institutional mistrust in Nordic participatory planning: Experience from contested urban projects. Planning Theory and Practice 20(2): 203-220.

Lehtonen, M. 2019. Ecological economics and megaproject appraisal: lessons from megaproject scholarship and topics for a research programme. Ecological Economics 159(May): 148-156.

Lehtonen, M., Sébastien, L. & Bauler, T. 2016. The multiple roles of sustainability indicators in informational governance: between intended use and unanticipated influence. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability. 18: 1–9.

Lehtonen, M. 2014. Evaluating megaprojects: from the “iron triangle” to network mapping. Evaluation 20(3): 278-295.

Lehtonen, M. 2014. Evaluation of “The Social” in Megaprojects: Tensions, Dichotomies, and Ambiguities. International Journal of Architecture, Engineering and Construction 3(2): 98-109.

Lehtonen, M. 2014. Acceptance of Brazilian ethanol fuel and the role of expertise. Biofuels 5(3): 261-274.

Sébastien, L., Lehtonen, M. & Bauler, T. 2014. Can indicators fill the gap between science and policy? An exploration of the (non) use and (non) influence of indicators in EU and UK policymaking. Nature & Culture 9(3): 316-343.

Macnaghten, P., Owen, R., Stilgoe, J., Wynne, B., Azevedo, A., de Campos, A., Chilvers, J., Dagnino, R., di Giulio, G., Frow, E., Garvey, B., Groves, C., Hartley, S., Knobel, M., Kobayashi, E., Lehtonen, M., Lezaun, J., Mello, L., Monteiro, M., Pamplona da Costa, J., Rigolin, C., Rondani, B., Staykova, M., Taddei, R. Till, C., Tyfield, D., Wilford, S. & Velho, L. 2014. Responsible innovation across borders: tensions, paradoxes and possibilities. Journal of Responsible Innovation 1(2): 191-199.

Lehtonen, M. 2013. The non-use and influence of UK Energy Sector Indicators. Ecological Indicators 35(December): 24-34.

Gasparatos, A., Lehtonen, M. & Strömberg, P. 2013. Do we need a unified appraisal framework to synthesize biofuel impacts? Biomass and Bioenergy 50(1): 75–80.

Sorrell, S., Lehtonen, M., Stapleton, L., Pujol, J. & Champion, T. 2012. Decoupling of road freight energy use from economic growth in the United Kingdom. Energy Policy 41(February): 84–97.

Teräväinen, T., Lehtonen, M. & Martiskainen, M. 2011. Climate change, energy security and risk – Debating new nuclear build in Finland, France and the UK. Energy Policy 39(6): 3434–3442.

Lehtonen, M. 2011. Social sustainability of the Brazilian bioethanol: power relations in a centre-periphery perspective. Biomass and Bioenergy 35(6): 2425-2434.

Lehtonen, M. 2010. Deliberative decision-making on radioactive waste management in Finland, France and the UK: Influence of mixed forms of deliberation in the macro discursive context. Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences 7(3): 175-196.

Lehtonen, M. 2010. Opening up or Closing Down Radioactive Waste Management Policy? Debates on Reversibility and Retrievability in Finland, France, and the United Kingdom. Risk, Hazards, & Crisis in Public Policy 1(4): 139-179.

Lehtonen, M. 2009. OECD organisational discourse, peer reviews and sustainable development: an ecological-institutionalist perspective. Ecological Economics 69(2): 389-397.

Sorrell, S., Lehtonen, M., Stapleton, L., Pujol, J. & Champion, T. 2009. Decomposing road freight energy use in the United Kingdom. Energy Policy 37(8): 3115–3129.

Lehtonen, M. & Nye, S. 2009. History of electricity network control and distributed generation in the UK and western Denmark. Energy Policy 37(6): 2338-2345.

Lehtonen, M. 2008. Mainstreaming Sustainable Development in the OECD through Indicators and Peer Reviews. Sustainable Development 16(3): 241-250.

Berninger, K., Tapio, P., Lehtonen, M. & Willamo, R. 2008/2009. Une approche centrée sur les problèmes pour les sciences de l’environnement. Environments 36(2): 1-18.

Lehtonen, M. 2007. Environmental Policy Integration through the OECD Peer Reviews: Integrating Economy to the Environment or the Environment to the Economy? Environmental Politics 16(1): 15-35.

Lehtonen, M. 2006. Deliberative Democracy, Participation, and OECD Peer Reviews of Environmental Policies. American Journal of Evaluation 27(2): 185-200.

Lehtonen, M. 2005. OECD Environmental Performance Review Programme: Accountability (f)or Learning? Evaluation 11(2): 169-188.

Lehtonen, M. 2004. The environmental-social interface of sustainable development: capabilities, social capital, institutions. Ecological Economics 49(2): 199-214.

Edited books

Kaijser, A., Lehtonen, M., Meyer, J.-H. & Rubio Varas, M. (eds.). 2021. Engaging the Atom: The History of Nuclear Energy and Society in Europe from the 1950s to the Present. West Virginia University Press.

Lehtonen, M., Joly, P.-B. & Aparicio, L. (eds.). 2017. Socioeconomic evaluation of megaprojects: Dealing with uncertainties. Routledge. (Including introductory & concluding chapters by the editors).

De Perthuis, C., Didier, M., Lehtonen, M. & Duchassaing, S. 2002. Le développement durable : signification et enjeux. Sustainable development: Meaning and Challenges. Groupe Caisse des Dépôts & Le Cercle ces économistes. Paris.

Edited special issues

Sébastien, L., Lehtonen, M. & Bauler, T. (eds.). Démocratiser la mesure: les indicateurs participatifs. Participations 2017/2 (No. 18). Including: Sébastien, Lehtonen, Bauler, Introduction. Les indicateurs participatifs tiennent-ils leurs promesses ? pp. 9-38.

Trust, mistrust, distrust and trust-building in the nuclear sector: historical and comparative experience from Europe. Journal of Risk Research (2022). Co-edited with Ana Prades, Josep Espluga, and Stathis Arapostathis.

Nuclear Megaproject Promises, Uncertainties, and Sustainable Development. Journal of Mega Infrastructure & Sustainable Development (April 2022)

Selected book chapters

Lehtonen, M. (forthcoming, 2022). Indicators and Measures as Policy Tools. In: Howlett, M. (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Policy Tools. Chapter 17.

Lehtonen, M. (forthcoming, 2022). The governance ecosystem of radioactive waste management in France: governing of and with mistrust. In: Arentsen, M., Snijders, D. & van Est, R. (eds.), The Future of Radioactive Waste – Governance Lessons from Europe.

Kaijser, A., Lehtonen, M., Meyer, J.-H. & Rubio Varas, M. 2021. Nuclear Energy and Society in Post-war Europe: An Introduction. In: Kaijser et al., Engaging the Atom: The History of Nuclear Energy and Society in Europe from the 1950s to the Present. West Virginia University Press.

Josephson, P. & Lehtonen, M. 2021. International Organizations and the Atom: How Comecon, Euratom, and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Developed Societal Engagement. In: Kaijser et al., Engaging the Atom. Chapter 4.

Lehtonen, M., Cotton, M. & Kasperski, T. 2021. Trust and Mistrust in Radioactive Waste Management: Historical Experience from High- and Low-Trust Contexts. In: Kaijser et al., Engaging the Atom. Chapter 6.

Kaijser, A., Lehtonen, M., Meyer, J.-H. & Rubio Varas, M. 2021. Conclusions: Future Challenges for Nuclear Energy and Society in a Historical Perspective. In: Kaijser et al., Engaging the Atom. Chapter 10.

Lehtonen, M. & Kojo, M. 2019. The Role and Functions of Community Benefit Schemes: A Comparison of the Finnish and French Nuclear Waste Disposal Projects. In: Brunnengräber, A. & Di Nucci, M.R. (eds.), Conflicts, Participation and Acceptability in Nuclear Waste Governance: An International Comparison Volume III, Springer VS. Pp. 175-205.

Lehtonen, M. Joly, P.-B. & Aparicio, L. 2017. Introduction. In: Lehtonen, Joly, P.-B. & Aparicio, L. (dir.), Socioeconomic evaluation of megaprojects: Dealing with uncertainties. Abingdon and New York: Routledge. Ch. 1.

Lehtonen, M. Joly, P.-B. & Aparicio, L. 2017. Conclusions. In: Lehtonen et al., op. cit. Ch. 12.

Reverdy, T. & Lehtonen, M. 2017. The Lyon-Turin high-speed railway project and the escalation of commitment. In: Lehtonen, M., Joly, P.-B. & Aparicio, L. (op.cit.), Chapter 4.

Lehtonen, M., Kojo, M. & Litmanen, T. 2017. The Finnish success story in the governance of a megaproject: the (minimal) role of socioeconomic evaluation in the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. In: Lehtonen, M., Joly, P.-B. & Aparicio, L. (op.cit.), pp. 83-110.

Lehtonen, M. 2017. Operationalizing Information: Measures and Indicators in Policy Formulation. In: Howlett, M. & Mukherjee, I. (eds.) Handbook of Policy Formulation. Cheltenham, UK & Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar. Pp. 161-181.

Lehtonen, M. 2016. Conditions pour une évaluation socioéconomique par la cartographie de réseaux dans un contexte de méfiance : le projet de gestion des déchets radioactifs en France. In: Lamari, M. & Jacob, J. (dir.) Praxis de l’évaluation et de la révision des programmes publics: Approches, compétences et défis. Presses de l’Université du Québec. Pp. 261-280.

Lehtonen, M. 2015. Megaproject Underway: Governance of Nuclear Waste Management in France. In: Brunnengräber, A., Di Nucci, M.R., Isidoro Losada, A.M., Mez, L. & Schreurs, M.A. (eds.), Governance of Nuclear Waste Management: An International Comparison. Springer. Pp. 117-138.

Lehtonen, M. 2015. Indicators: tools for informing, monitoring or controlling? In: Jordan, A.J. & Turnpenny, J.R. (eds.) The Tools of Policy Formulation: Actors, Capacities, Venues and Effects. Edward Elgar. Pp. 76–99.

Lehtonen, M. & Martiskainen, M. 2015. Nuclear power after Fukushima: prospects and implications. In: Ekins, P., Bradshaw, M., Watson, J (eds.) Global Energy: Issues, Potentials, and Policy Implications. Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press. Pp. 306-330.

Lehtonen, M. 2012. Power, social sustainability, and certification of ethanol fuel: view from the Northeast of Brazil. In: Gasparatos, A. & Strömberg, P. (eds.), Socioeconomic and Environmental Impacts of Biofuels: Evidence from Developing Nations. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 144-170.

Lehtonen, M. 2012. Indicators as an appraisal technology: Framework for analysing the policy influence of the UK Energy Sector Indicators. In: Raggamby et al. (eds.), “Sustainable development, evaluation and policy making”, Edward Elgar: Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA. Pp. 175-206.

Lehtonen, M. 2009. OECD Peer Reviews and Policy Convergence: Diffusing Policies or Discourses? In: Biermann, F., Schreyögg, A. and Siebenhühner, B. (eds.), International Organizations and Global Environmental Governance. Routledge Pp. 71-90.

Lehtonen, M. & Kern, F. 2009. Deliberative socio-technical transitions. In: Scrase, I. & MacKerron, G. (eds.), Energy for the Future: A New Agenda. New York and London: Palgrave Macmillan.


Markku Lehtonen

Visiting Researcher
Research Areas

Markku Lehtonen is a Visiting Researcher at the School of Public Policy and Global Affairs (SPPGA) at UBC from February to July 2022 and a researcher at the Pompeu Fabra University in Barcelona and at the Barcelona Autonomous University (UAB). At SPPGA, he is collaborating primarily with Professors Allison Macfarlane and M.V. Ramana on research concerning nuclear-sector promises (especially Small Modular Reactors) and the socio-technical aspects of nuclear waste management. Markku is also Associate Researcher at the Groupe de Sociologie Pragmatique et Réflexive (GSPR), Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) in Paris, and at the Science Policy Research Unit (SPRU) of the University of Sussex, UK. He also has the title of Docent at the Department of Social Sciences and Philosophy, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.

Markku is an interdisciplinary social scientist, with over 30 years of international experience in research and policy relating to sustainable development, as well as energy and environmental policy. In his research, he applies a range of methods and approaches including comparative case studies, expert and stakeholder interviews, frame analysis, socio-informatics, and document analysis. Markku has conducted interview fieldwork in the native language of the interviewees in France, Brazil, Finland, Portugal, Sweden, and the UK. His recent and on-going research focuses on the roles of trust, mistrust, and distrust, as well as techno-scientific promises and epistemic communities in the governance of megaprojects in the nuclear energy sector. Markku holds a PhD in ecological economics from the C3ED, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, France (2005) and an MSc in Environmental Protection from the University of Helsinki, Finland (1994).

Markku is Principal Investigator of a three-year (2022-2024) project PROMISESThe making of sustainability transitions with (false?) expectations: Critical analysis of historical and current promises of nuclear technology, funded by the Finnish Kone Foundation. In 2019-2021, he worked as an EU Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual Fellow at the Pompeu Fabra University in Barcelona, leading his individual project TENUMECAThe technopolitics of nuclear megaproject pathologies, economic controversies and varieties of socioeconomic appraisal. The project included interviews and participant observation during a 4.5-month secondment at the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), Paris, in summer 2019. In 2016-2019, Markku worked as the Scientific executive and responsible for the France Country Report within the large EU FP7-funded project HoNEStHistory of Nuclear Energy and Society, which included experts from 23 research institutions from Europe and the US. Markku is co-editor of a recently published volume based on the findings of the HoNESt project: Kaijser, A., Lehtonen, M., Meyer, J.-H. & Rubio Varas, M. (eds.). 2021. Engaging the Atom: The History of Nuclear Energy and Society in Europe from the 1950s to the Present. West Virginia University Press.

Other Research Grants and Projects

2021-25: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, EU Horizon project, ECF4CLIM - A European competence framework for a low carbon economy and sustainability through education, PI: Yolanda Lechón, CIEMAT, Spain.

2018: Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Waste Management (KYT), Governing Safety in Finnish and Swedish Nuclear Waste Regimes (SAFER), with Tampere University. Acquiring Social License for Disposal: trust and acceptance (SOLID), with Tampere University.

2015-18: ESSEC Business School, Centre CONNECT, Participation et confiance : cas de participation locale en Finlande, Suède et Royaume-Uni (with L. de Carlo, ESSEC)

2014-16: GSPR Co-I, CNRS, Economics and scenarios in the relaunch of nuclear energy in Europe: comparison between the trajectories of the EPR reactor in Finland, France and the UK – MESRENE (PIs: Francis Chateauraynaud & Jean-Charles Hourcade)

2013-14: SPRU PI, CNRS, Socio-political consequences of the Fukushima accident in Europe -– RESPAFE 1 & 2 (PI: Guillaume Courty, Lille 2)

2012-14: Ifris PI, Andra (Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs), Analysis of methodologies for socio-economic evaluation of the French radioactive waste disposal project (supervised by Pierre-Benoît Joly, Ifris)

2011–14: SPRU Co-I, EU FP7, APRAISE – Assessment of Policy Interrelationships and Impacts on Sustainability in Europe (lead: Joanneum Research, Austria; SPRU PI: Steve Sorrell)

2010–12: SPRU PI, EDF France The rise and fall of the fast breeder reactor technology in France and the UK: expertise, risk and hype-disappointment cycles?

2009-10: PI, Paris city fellowship, Nuclear renaissance: participatory and deliberative governance of nuclear energy in Finland, France and the UK

2008–11: SPRU PI, EU FP7, POINT – Policy Influence of Indicators (PI: Pia Frederiksen, DMU, Copenhagen)

Peer reviewed journal articles and conference papers               

Lehtonen, M. 2022 (forthcoming). The discursive construction of the economic sustainability of nuclear energy megaprojects: The role of the state in British, French, and Finnish debates on state support. Journal of Mega Infrastructure and Sustainable Development.

Lehtonen, M., Prades, A., Espluga, J. & Konrad, W. 2021. The emergence of mistrustful civic vigilance in Finnish, French, German and Spanish nuclear policies: ideological trust and (de)politicization. Journal of Risk Research. https://doi.org/10.1080/13669877.2021.1957986

Lehtonen, M., Kojo, M., Kari, M. Jartti, T. & Litmanen, T. 2021. Trust, mistrust and distrust as blind spots of Social Licence to Operate: Illustration via three forerunner countries in nuclear waste management. Journal of Risk Research. https://doi.org/10.1080/13669877.2021.1957987

Lehtonen, M. 2021. NEA framing nuclear megaproject ‘pathologies’: vices of the modern Western society? Nuclear Technology 207 (9): 1329-1350. https://doi.org/10.1080/00295450.2021.1885952

Lehtonen, M., Kojo, M., Kari, M., Litmanen, T. 2021. Healthy mistrust or complacent confidence? Civic vigilance in the reporting by leading newspapers on nuclear waste disposal in Finland and France. Risk, Hazards,  & Crisis in Public Policy 12(2): 130-157.

Kari, M., Kojo, M. & Lehtonen, M. 2021. Role of the host communities in final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland and Sweden. Progress in Nuclear Energy 133 (March).

Lehtonen, M. 2020. Harder governance built on soft foundations: experience from OECD peer reviews. Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 22(6): 814-829 (Special Issue "Harder Soft-Governance" in European Climate and Energy Policy: Following a New Trend?)

Lehtonen, M., Kojo, M., Jartti, T., Litmanen, T. & Kari, M. 2020. The roles of the state and social licence to operate? Lessons from nuclear waste management in Finland, France, and Sweden. Energy Research and Social Science. Vol. 61 (March).

Kojo, M., Kari, M., Litmanen, T., Vilhunen, T. & Lehtonen, M. 2020. The critical Swedes and the consensual Finns: Leading newspapers as watchdogs or lapdogs of nuclear waste repository licensing? Energy Research and Social Science. Vol. 61 (March).

Lehtonen, M. 2020. History, Trust and Mistrust: Lessons from Radioactive Waste Disposal Megaprojects. In: Ronggui, D. (ed.), Trust in Major and Mega Projects. 7th IPMA Research Conference, Zagreb, Croatia, Sept 4-7, 2019. International Project Management Association – IPMA. Pp. 291-307.

Lehtonen, M. 2019.The multiple faces of trust in statistics and indicators: A case for healthy mistrust and distrust. Statistical Journal of the IAOS 35(4): 539–548. DOI 10.3233/SJI-190579

Lehtonen, M. & de Carlo, L. 2019. Community energy and the virtues of mistrust and distrust: Lessons from Brighton and Hove energy cooperatives. Ecological Economics, Vol. 164 (October).

Lehtonen, M. & de Carlo, L. 2019. Diffuse institutional trust and specific institutional mistrust in Nordic participatory planning: Experience from contested urban projects. Planning Theory and Practice 20(2): 203-220.

Lehtonen, M. 2019. Ecological economics and megaproject appraisal: lessons from megaproject scholarship and topics for a research programme. Ecological Economics 159(May): 148-156.

Lehtonen, M., Sébastien, L. & Bauler, T. 2016. The multiple roles of sustainability indicators in informational governance: between intended use and unanticipated influence. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability. 18: 1–9.

Lehtonen, M. 2014. Evaluating megaprojects: from the “iron triangle” to network mapping. Evaluation 20(3): 278-295.

Lehtonen, M. 2014. Evaluation of “The Social” in Megaprojects: Tensions, Dichotomies, and Ambiguities. International Journal of Architecture, Engineering and Construction 3(2): 98-109.

Lehtonen, M. 2014. Acceptance of Brazilian ethanol fuel and the role of expertise. Biofuels 5(3): 261-274.

Sébastien, L., Lehtonen, M. & Bauler, T. 2014. Can indicators fill the gap between science and policy? An exploration of the (non) use and (non) influence of indicators in EU and UK policymaking. Nature & Culture 9(3): 316-343.

Macnaghten, P., Owen, R., Stilgoe, J., Wynne, B., Azevedo, A., de Campos, A., Chilvers, J., Dagnino, R., di Giulio, G., Frow, E., Garvey, B., Groves, C., Hartley, S., Knobel, M., Kobayashi, E., Lehtonen, M., Lezaun, J., Mello, L., Monteiro, M., Pamplona da Costa, J., Rigolin, C., Rondani, B., Staykova, M., Taddei, R. Till, C., Tyfield, D., Wilford, S. & Velho, L. 2014. Responsible innovation across borders: tensions, paradoxes and possibilities. Journal of Responsible Innovation 1(2): 191-199.

Lehtonen, M. 2013. The non-use and influence of UK Energy Sector Indicators. Ecological Indicators 35(December): 24-34.

Gasparatos, A., Lehtonen, M. & Strömberg, P. 2013. Do we need a unified appraisal framework to synthesize biofuel impacts? Biomass and Bioenergy 50(1): 75–80.

Sorrell, S., Lehtonen, M., Stapleton, L., Pujol, J. & Champion, T. 2012. Decoupling of road freight energy use from economic growth in the United Kingdom. Energy Policy 41(February): 84–97.

Teräväinen, T., Lehtonen, M. & Martiskainen, M. 2011. Climate change, energy security and risk – Debating new nuclear build in Finland, France and the UK. Energy Policy 39(6): 3434–3442.

Lehtonen, M. 2011. Social sustainability of the Brazilian bioethanol: power relations in a centre-periphery perspective. Biomass and Bioenergy 35(6): 2425-2434.

Lehtonen, M. 2010. Deliberative decision-making on radioactive waste management in Finland, France and the UK: Influence of mixed forms of deliberation in the macro discursive context. Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences 7(3): 175-196.

Lehtonen, M. 2010. Opening up or Closing Down Radioactive Waste Management Policy? Debates on Reversibility and Retrievability in Finland, France, and the United Kingdom. Risk, Hazards, & Crisis in Public Policy 1(4): 139-179.

Lehtonen, M. 2009. OECD organisational discourse, peer reviews and sustainable development: an ecological-institutionalist perspective. Ecological Economics 69(2): 389-397.

Sorrell, S., Lehtonen, M., Stapleton, L., Pujol, J. & Champion, T. 2009. Decomposing road freight energy use in the United Kingdom. Energy Policy 37(8): 3115–3129.

Lehtonen, M. & Nye, S. 2009. History of electricity network control and distributed generation in the UK and western Denmark. Energy Policy 37(6): 2338-2345.

Lehtonen, M. 2008. Mainstreaming Sustainable Development in the OECD through Indicators and Peer Reviews. Sustainable Development 16(3): 241-250.

Berninger, K., Tapio, P., Lehtonen, M. & Willamo, R. 2008/2009. Une approche centrée sur les problèmes pour les sciences de l'environnement. Environments 36(2): 1-18.

Lehtonen, M. 2007. Environmental Policy Integration through the OECD Peer Reviews: Integrating Economy to the Environment or the Environment to the Economy? Environmental Politics 16(1): 15-35.

Lehtonen, M. 2006. Deliberative Democracy, Participation, and OECD Peer Reviews of Environmental Policies. American Journal of Evaluation 27(2): 185-200.

Lehtonen, M. 2005. OECD Environmental Performance Review Programme: Accountability (f)or Learning? Evaluation 11(2): 169-188.

Lehtonen, M. 2004. The environmental-social interface of sustainable development: capabilities, social capital, institutions. Ecological Economics 49(2): 199-214.

Edited books

Kaijser, A., Lehtonen, M., Meyer, J.-H. & Rubio Varas, M. (eds.). 2021. Engaging the Atom: The History of Nuclear Energy and Society in Europe from the 1950s to the Present. West Virginia University Press.

Lehtonen, M., Joly, P.-B. & Aparicio, L. (eds.). 2017. Socioeconomic evaluation of megaprojects: Dealing with uncertainties. Routledge. (Including introductory & concluding chapters by the editors).

De Perthuis, C., Didier, M., Lehtonen, M. & Duchassaing, S. 2002. Le développement durable : signification et enjeux. Sustainable development: Meaning and Challenges. Groupe Caisse des Dépôts & Le Cercle ces économistes. Paris.

Edited special issues

Sébastien, L., Lehtonen, M. & Bauler, T. (eds.). Démocratiser la mesure: les indicateurs participatifs. Participations 2017/2 (No. 18). Including: Sébastien, Lehtonen, Bauler, Introduction. Les indicateurs participatifs tiennent-ils leurs promesses ? pp. 9-38.

Trust, mistrust, distrust and trust-building in the nuclear sector: historical and comparative experience from Europe. Journal of Risk Research (2022). Co-edited with Ana Prades, Josep Espluga, and Stathis Arapostathis.

Nuclear Megaproject Promises, Uncertainties, and Sustainable Development. Journal of Mega Infrastructure & Sustainable Development (April 2022)

Selected book chapters

Lehtonen, M. (forthcoming, 2022). Indicators and Measures as Policy Tools. In: Howlett, M. (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Policy Tools. Chapter 17.

Lehtonen, M. (forthcoming, 2022). The governance ecosystem of radioactive waste management in France: governing of and with mistrust. In: Arentsen, M., Snijders, D. & van Est, R. (eds.), The Future of Radioactive Waste - Governance Lessons from Europe.

Kaijser, A., Lehtonen, M., Meyer, J.-H. & Rubio Varas, M. 2021. Nuclear Energy and Society in Post-war Europe: An Introduction. In: Kaijser et al., Engaging the Atom: The History of Nuclear Energy and Society in Europe from the 1950s to the Present. West Virginia University Press.

Josephson, P. & Lehtonen, M. 2021. International Organizations and the Atom: How Comecon, Euratom, and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Developed Societal Engagement. In: Kaijser et al., Engaging the Atom. Chapter 4.

Lehtonen, M., Cotton, M. & Kasperski, T. 2021. Trust and Mistrust in Radioactive Waste Management: Historical Experience from High- and Low-Trust Contexts. In: Kaijser et al., Engaging the Atom. Chapter 6.

Kaijser, A., Lehtonen, M., Meyer, J.-H. & Rubio Varas, M. 2021. Conclusions: Future Challenges for Nuclear Energy and Society in a Historical Perspective. In: Kaijser et al., Engaging the Atom. Chapter 10.

Lehtonen, M. & Kojo, M. 2019. The Role and Functions of Community Benefit Schemes: A Comparison of the Finnish and French Nuclear Waste Disposal Projects. In: Brunnengräber, A. & Di Nucci, M.R. (eds.), Conflicts, Participation and Acceptability in Nuclear Waste Governance: An International Comparison Volume III, Springer VS. Pp. 175-205.

Lehtonen, M. Joly, P.-B. & Aparicio, L. 2017. Introduction. In: Lehtonen, Joly, P.-B. & Aparicio, L. (dir.), Socioeconomic evaluation of megaprojects: Dealing with uncertainties. Abingdon and New York: Routledge. Ch. 1.

Lehtonen, M. Joly, P.-B. & Aparicio, L. 2017. Conclusions. In: Lehtonen et al., op. cit. Ch. 12.

Reverdy, T. & Lehtonen, M. 2017. The Lyon-Turin high-speed railway project and the escalation of commitment. In: Lehtonen, M., Joly, P.-B. & Aparicio, L. (op.cit.), Chapter 4.

Lehtonen, M., Kojo, M. & Litmanen, T. 2017. The Finnish success story in the governance of a megaproject: the (minimal) role of socioeconomic evaluation in the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. In: Lehtonen, M., Joly, P.-B. & Aparicio, L. (op.cit.), pp. 83-110.

Lehtonen, M. 2017. Operationalizing Information: Measures and Indicators in Policy Formulation. In: Howlett, M. & Mukherjee, I. (eds.) Handbook of Policy Formulation. Cheltenham, UK & Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar. Pp. 161-181.

Lehtonen, M. 2016. Conditions pour une évaluation socioéconomique par la cartographie de réseaux dans un contexte de méfiance : le projet de gestion des déchets radioactifs en France. In: Lamari, M. & Jacob, J. (dir.) Praxis de l’évaluation et de la révision des programmes publics: Approches, compétences et défis. Presses de l’Université du Québec. Pp. 261-280.

Lehtonen, M. 2015. Megaproject Underway: Governance of Nuclear Waste Management in France. In: Brunnengräber, A., Di Nucci, M.R., Isidoro Losada, A.M., Mez, L. & Schreurs, M.A. (eds.), Governance of Nuclear Waste Management: An International Comparison. Springer. Pp. 117-138.

Lehtonen, M. 2015. Indicators: tools for informing, monitoring or controlling? In: Jordan, A.J. & Turnpenny, J.R. (eds.) The Tools of Policy Formulation: Actors, Capacities, Venues and Effects. Edward Elgar. Pp. 76–99.

Lehtonen, M. & Martiskainen, M. 2015. Nuclear power after Fukushima: prospects and implications. In: Ekins, P., Bradshaw, M., Watson, J (eds.) Global Energy: Issues, Potentials, and Policy Implications. Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press. Pp. 306-330.

Lehtonen, M. 2012. Power, social sustainability, and certification of ethanol fuel: view from the Northeast of Brazil. In: Gasparatos, A. & Strömberg, P. (eds.), Socioeconomic and Environmental Impacts of Biofuels: Evidence from Developing Nations. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 144-170.

Lehtonen, M. 2012. Indicators as an appraisal technology: Framework for analysing the policy influence of the UK Energy Sector Indicators. In: Raggamby et al. (eds.), “Sustainable development, evaluation and policy making", Edward Elgar: Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA. Pp. 175-206.

Lehtonen, M. 2009. OECD Peer Reviews and Policy Convergence: Diffusing Policies or Discourses? In: Biermann, F., Schreyögg, A. and Siebenhühner, B. (eds.), International Organizations and Global Environmental Governance. Routledge Pp. 71-90.

Lehtonen, M. & Kern, F. 2009. Deliberative socio-technical transitions. In: Scrase, I. & MacKerron, G. (eds.), Energy for the Future: A New Agenda. New York and London: Palgrave Macmillan.